"How about the best of both worlds: Make the picket stealthy and tow a radar reflecting "raft" behind the vessel. "it can still operate should Aegis get knocked out or jammed. Later joined by the Marines, Army forces slogged it out with the Japanese, suffering high casualties against the well-defended Shuri Line. The Navy’s losses were the Id assume that part of being a CO is knowing your fields of fire for your point defense systems and that there are well-planned doctrinal maneuvers when a threat appears. aground off Pearl Harbor. With progress occurring much slower than anticipated (particularly on the southern end of the island) and ground forces heavily dependent on Fifth Fleet for fire support and supplies, Spruance’s ships remained on a short leash with no choice but to remain inviting targets for the kamikazes until the island was fully secured. and start designing ships for combat, not peacetime cruises. On the very day that the Marines declared organized resistance over on Iwo Jima (16 March 1945), Admiral Raymond Spruance, Fifth Fleet commander, was on board his flagship Indianapolis (CA-35), enroute to the Ryukyus in company with Admiral Marc Mitscher’s Fast Carrier Task Force 58 (TF 58). In the coming weeks, more than 1,600 ships and 350,000 naval personnel from other task forces under Spruance’s overall command would assemble to form the largest amphibious assault force of World War II. The carriers were Franklin, Enterprise, Wasp, and Randolph. Suicide pilots came to realize this and attempted to mitigate the effectiveness of CAPs by synchronizing their attacks to take place during evening twilight after the dusk CAP had departed for base. Now, with Fifth Fleet so close to the Japanese mainland, Navy planners feared that as many as 3,000–4,000 planes could be expected. Collection of Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz. the picket ships did at Okinawa. Despite the battleship’s considerable firepower, Yamato’s inexperience and ill-trained crew was little match for the veteran U.S. aviators. of picket ships mimics the Navy’s desire for advanced screens of unmanned saturation missile attacks and the US Navy has not devoted any attention to the Support Provided by: Learn More At sea, 368 Allied ships—including 120 amphibious craft—were damaged while another 36—including 15 amphibious ships and 12 destroyers—were sunk during the Okinawa campaign. Before reading this article, I would have suggested the following: An oversized (but as small as possible) Sea Hunter, Phalanx fore and SeaRAM aft. So that makes not only more numerous point defense systems, but armor even more relevant. Further, the dynamic of the Kamikaze and the picket ships gives us chance and will be quickly eliminated leaving the core group with no early the battleship Yamato, a cruiser, and several destroyers. Potter reported Bucker and Nimitz clashed during the visit. Before then, however, they would have to endure one of the most brutal battles of the war. For today’s Navy, the Battle of Okinawa is a stark reminder of the importance of integrated American naval power, the necessity of conducting effective joint operations, and the value of being able to learn in real time. Burkes have a When fired, the lid of the launch canister, which also includes the inflation system, pulls the decoy out and into the water.”“After the decoy inflates, the lid acts as a drag anchor to keep it relatively stable. Japan lost an estimated 1,600 suicide and conventional planes at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Okinawa_naval_order_of_battle, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radar_picket, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Okinawa#Military_losses, Right In Front Of You But You Can't See It. Twenty-two Id assume modern asm's with terminal maneuvering would have better last-moment targeting... @CNO When I referenced a ship changing aspect to an inbound, it was mostly to show the lack of time to respond to an attack. Outstanding analysis. "Do you know if it's ever been tested against missiles? A kamikaze spirit permeated the entire Navy."[20]. routinely absorbed multiple hits, kept fighting, and often survived. (3). I don't know about Umkhonto versus ESSM, but that's another swap I'd look into. Only if Unfortunately, other than extensive use of the DLF-3B Inflatable Decoy System, my “raft” idea was rejected for the following reasons:1. Does anyone seriously believe that a Burke, Sources differ regarding the number of ships sunk by kamikaze aircraft during World War II. Swallow earned two battle stars for World War II service. The mismatch in technology between the advanced forces assembled for the battle. warning and early defense against the kamikaze saturation attacks. The Italians have a nice 40mm CIWS. "The Okinawa pickets were located 20-80 miles (mostly 50-80 miles) from the center of the defended area. Are there any other solutions to that problem, that you can see? The defending weapons were optically (and Naval Academy, The Catastrophic Fire On Board USS Forrestal, The Sullivan Brothers and the Assignment of Family Members, The African American Experience in the U.S. Navy, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in the U.S. Navy, Contributions of American Indians to the U.S. Navy, Naval Service of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Personnel, The World Cruise of the Great White Fleet, Navy Underwater Archaeology Return Program, Research Permits for Sunken & Terrestrial Military Craft, Scanning, Copyright & Citation Information, Obtain Duplications of Records and Photos, Battle of Iwo Jima Medal of Honor Recipients, Navy Nurses Behind Enemy Lines in the Philippines, Battle of Okinawa Medal of Honor Recipients, A Kamikaze Attack on New Mexico, Fifth Fleet Flag: A Photo Essay, A Ceremony for the Fallen: Aftermath of a Kamikaze Attack, Admiral Spruance Recounts Kamikaze Attack on His Flagship, New Mexico (BB-40), On the Verge of Breaking Down Completely: Combat Fatigue off Okinawa and the Destruction of USS Longshaw, Investigating Okinawa: The Story Behind A Kamikaze Pilot’s Scarf, The Most Difficult Antiaircraft Problem Yet Faced By the Fleet, Victory in Europe: Germany's Surrender and Aftermath, Homeward Bound – World War II Ends in the Pacific, https://www.history.navy.mil/research/histories/ship-histories/danfs/f/franklin-v.html. [14] Carroll Dyer, The Amphibians Came to Conquer: The Story of Admiral Richmond Kelly Turner, Vol. ships was the high speed, nuclear powered submarine USS Triton which could Is the Hornet/AMRAAM effective against missiles? [1] Death and ship losses became commonplace by the conclusion of Okinawa with Fifth Fleet’s medical department pointedly stating in the battle’s After Action Report that, “Ship casualties occur quickly and heavily, human bodies and steel ships fall apart. For the first time in the Navy’s history, the number of dead exceeded the number of wounded in a campaign. (j.g.) Discussion of the Visbys prompts me to ask, why is it that the USN seems so committed to building ships that are undergunned? And, ASW defenses would be equally important as one or two SSGNs could get close and launch a sneak attack. The armed versions would lie within the avenues of attack, funneling those missiles into kill zones. Weapon Density – This was, however, just one of the important lessons learned during this period. absolutely minimal. https://www.thyssenkrupp-marinesystems.com/en/frigate-class-125.htmlIs the German F125 or Meko A-400 if exported.Each half of the ship can fight independently. It also had a bow thruster so could lose both props and still move. support (large) (LCS(L)) The Okinawa picket stations were positioned close enough to The ability to layer AAW sensors and shooters is absolutely key. considerations for us. AAW! act as pickets and outer escorts for carrier and surface groups despite having Even the ships that would make up today’s core group have very limited That's a money saver but it wouldn't fly in the USN and for very good reasons! TRS or downsized AEGIS, around 24 VLS cells, two centerline superstructure-mounted(upnhigh) amidships CIWS, fantail Searam, single 76mm, no sonar or helo facilities. "Visby discussion aside, your main point is spot on. Peer warfare The Japanese loss was staggering, loosing a total of 7,830 planes in three months. pickets provided early warning, fighter direction, and direct engagement. warning and early defense against the kamikaze saturation attacks. Many people - not you, of course - have strongly doubted my statement that 30 escorts or so are required. To ensure the smooth functioning of this arrangement, clear delineations between Army and Navy commands needed to be established particularly since the campaign would eventually shift from an amphibious focus to the ground war. At the end of the day, if some get hit, during a mass missile attack we would lose some drones based upon 1980's tech and containing radar corner reflectors that I could literally build in my garage. concern for us, today, given that our smallest surface ship is the If unmanned pickets can be made to work, they could free up crewed ships to reinforce critical areas and allow them to maneuver in order to respond to new threats. Consider "No, let's not. Is the Navy truly incapable of learning from Equipped with only sufficient fuel for a one-way trip, the goal of the Japanese fleet was to reach Okinawa, beach whatever ships remained, and fight to the death from the shore. That doesn’t Mr. Iwasaki is a systems engineer who lives in Kobe, Japan, and who became fascinated as a teenager with the Japanese merchant ships of World War II — four-fifths of which were sunk … highest of the Pacific war: 4,907 sailors and officers killed, and 4,824 You may quote material on this web page as long as you cite American Merchant Marine at War, www.usmm.org, as the source. 12/22/10. employed and would greatly decrease the effectiveness of radar pickets. I don't mean to imply that I think the Visby is perfect. Navy leaders even began describing them as a primitive guided missile, with one noting, “[The] percentage of hits is higher because the missile [emphasis added] is aimable right up to the point of impact.”[24] Although it would be many years before self-guided anti-ship missiles became a reality, kamikaze attacks gave Navy planners a clear idea of just how severe a problem this technology (along with commensurate improvements to aircraft) would pose for any Navy fleet. The Okinawa example pointed up the need for massive numbers I think it’s time has come.https://www.lockheedmartin.com/en-us/news/features/history/sea-shadow.html. "That is a clever way to look at it. Combine that with a minimal speed advantage and you've got a low probability of kill.It's all about geometry of the intercept. "According to their site, the fast forty can kill supersonic missiles up to 3000 meters"It is important to distinguish between manufacturer's claims, which are largely false, and actual test data which is always unrealistically optimized but more correct than manufacturer's claims.In this case the NavWeaps 'claim' is a manufacturer's claim and, with 99% certainty, is misleading, bordering on false. Of course, the pickets would have to be EMP shielded, also!Thanks, that was a good reminder of a nearly forgotten weapon! picket/escort ships is ludicrous and combat-useless. One thing this article is not entirely correct is that China planned to export it as it has displayed it in a trade show.https://www.maritime-executive.com/article/china-s-unmanned-mini-destroyer-out-on-sea-trials. [11] Spruance to Moore, 13 May 1945. Beyond that, the number of close in weapons While the Okinawa”, Joseph Wheelan, 6-Mar-2020, https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/174496, (3)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radar_picket. For instance, Japan's Yamato battle ship became a strategic blunder as air carriers had become key in navy battles.For today's superpowers, Reconnaissance becomes the most important part as they have many ways to attack once they can locate and track the other side's ships. In an unprecedented move, Nimitz convened a press conference at his Guam HQ to talk about the ongoing campaign. if not more so, than the Kamikazes. Available on Fold3.com. Let's bump that up to $250MM apiece. [29] E.B. Understanding the basics of the situation at Okinawa, what We need sensor redundancy and backups. To meet this challenge would require more than just perseverance; it would require entirely new strategies. The US Combat Air Patrol (CAP) did an amazing Nimitz biographer E.B. extending out as far as 80 miles. Of course, I realize that's kind of a gimme putt. In the recent Sinkex there was a shot from forward that just missed. Army forces, on the other hand, faced more formidable defenses, which led to a slower, more methodical advance. [27] Spruance to Moore, 13 May 1945. Minesweeping, pre-invasion bombardments from warships, and tactical strikes from carrier-based aircraft paved the way for an uncontested amphibious landing of Lt. General Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr.’s U.S. Tenth Army (made up of U.S. Army Soldiers from the 96th and 7th Army Divisions, as well as Marines from the 1st and 6th Divisions) on Easter Sunday, 1 April 1945 (L-Day). Such a task was easier said than done, as the operation required an elaborate command structure. passive sensing role and make them combatants. My point is the current 30mm guns with no radar can't even try. I assure you, I will be pondering this intently. [17] Commander, Fast Carrier Task Force, Amphibious Operations Capture of Okinawa 27 March to 21 June 1945 (Washington, DC: Office of Chief of Naval Operations, 1946), 7/1 – 7/3. Japan, too, fielded a large force, mainly aerial, along with The Aegis arrays are large, exposed targets and likely to be seriously damaged and degraded from almost any hit.”This is a big reason why I favor putting the APAR/EMPAR/SAMPSON and SMART-L/S-1850 combination on our mini-Burke escorts. When these doors are open, the vessel would light up like a spotlight to all radar generating platforms and could appear to be a destroyer or even a carrier if the ORCR units were designed correctly (the sizing would determine the return).https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corner_reflector https://www.duckworksmagazine.com/07/howto/radar/index.htmIn a mass attack, when the missiles were closing in, the doors could be released, eliminating this radar return. That means the pickets need to be as cheap as possible with just the bare minimum of weapons and sensors to do the job. A mixture of ships with different capabilities meant each picket had to alter their group tactics when under attack. The Visbys at 1/6 the size have way more firepower tan an LCS. If there were 30 armed versions, then maybe 10 of these. S E Morrison's Appendix II to vol XIV of the (more or less "official" Navy History) titled "US Ships Sunk by Enemy Action in the Iwo Jima and Okinawa Campaigns", adds the following destroyer type ships sunk by air attack between "L-Day" at Okinawa (1 Apr) and 30 July to the "Wikipedia" list: Swap for these ASAP to help down drones and missiles.http://www.military-today.com/artillery/lvkv_90_l4.jpg. expendable. Some ships reported a tendency toward carelessness and a disregard of safety precautions which, under normal conditions, would be followed almost automatically.”[6] One form of morale boosting seemed to be allowing repair parties to man the .50 and .30 caliber guns to shoot at planes, even though these weapons were of dubious value in such attacks. [21] Clinging to debris from his ship, CAPT Tameichi Hara of Yahagi could only look on in envy as a Martin PBM Mariner swooped down to recover Lt. Saturation – The Kamikaze The obvious problem with this tactic is that the pickets could be kept If we have more sub tasks than subs then we need to build more subs instead of allowing our sub fleet to dip into the 40s, as we're doing. that penetrated the CAP screen. It all comes down to reaction time and does the defender have enough time to detect and launch enough missiles to defeat an incoming threat. out which places them well beyond any AAW support from the core group. WWII ships had some ability to dodge imcoming planes/bombs/torpedoes. She had been with the Pacific Fleet from the time of the Pearl Harbor raid on December 7, 1941. $$$$$. The success of these efforts (and the challenges in achieving them) were not only instrumental in securing Okinawa, but also provide a model case study for how to conduct joint operations. [30] Nimitz to wife, 26 April 1945. It will have ASW helos available. this ship had been in only one action before, namely the approach to the beaches during the invasion of okinawa. this partial Allied naval order of battle at Okinawa (1). However, drones have their own weaknesses to be address, for instance, communications while they are in enemy's territories (our signals much weaker than enemies'). That seems unbelievable to us, today, but Because they were the first ships encountered by kamikaze pilots, they also became the first ships targeted. I've seen the general plans for the allocation of divisions of troops and so forth but not air defense planning.I've covered this in posts, but one of the looming problems in AAW defense is going to be spotting the targets (attacking missiles) in a sky full of debris as the SAM missiles (hit or miss) start accumulating. We must heavily arm As the first line of defense against incoming Kamikaze planes, the picket ships took a tremendous beating. warships, and damaged 368 other vessels at Okinawa. If you have to choose between ground support and naval protection then you haven't got enough ships for the operation. destroyers were ordered as To believe the US can build a Visby for $250MM each is pure fantasy. to production, is there any other source of information that might allow us to ), or equivalent; no helo, no flight deck, no sonar, no gun, no nothing else. Make the picket/escort a missile 'sponge' by enhancing its radar signature thereby attracting the missiles rather than letting them pass by to attack the core group.This all gets back to AAW/escort doctrine and how you want to defend. I don't know. Were such a weapon available, one could imagine pickets being armed with defensive EMP missiles. Elsewhere, Lt. For example, you probably agree that the LCS needs all the help that it can get…. Guts of a Destroyer, Okinawa. Of couse it would be good to know about other experiments. Ships Sunk or Damaged in World War II Ships Home. to wage high end war. The attacks tested the nerves of even veteran sailors as 26 ships were sunk and another 164 damaged. Bear in mind that many modern missiles has a terminal optical imaging capability and could still find the target though likely at a reduced rate. Also CODLAG or IEP for quiet running in ASW mode, and the smallest hull you could cram all that into. Kamikaze strikes and a couple of bomb hits. Regrettably, these estimates proved to be quite on the mark, with the prolonged land battle enabling the Japanese to launch numerous air attacks that proved even more effective than anticipated. So, what does the Okinawa Kamikaze and picket ship scenario She was sunk by a kamikaze aircraft off Okinawa on 22 April 1945. "both types working in concert. [15] As a result, the Navy made it a policy to double CAP during dawn and dusk and also supplement carrier-based CAP with U.S. Army Air Force assets based on Okinawa. Kamikazes, Corsairs, and Picket Ships: Okinawa, 1945 by Robin L. Rielly Casemate, 2008, 435 pages. increase the number of sensors (redundancy) and types of sensors on our ships. of a ship that was able to keep firing despite taking half a dozen or so [7] The Navy realized after Okinawa that suitable rotations were needed for crews to perform optimally. before we factor in any distant picket requirements. Placement from in to out would be cruisers, AAW destroyers, GP escorts, with ASW frigates in outer ring. It is designed with two islands, two radars, etc.Each half has a gun - 5" at the front and a CIWS for the rear. committed to buying a fleet of worthless vessels. W.E. Radar pickets and combat air patrols served as the Navy’s primary weapons against the kamikaze threat. Copy in Admiral Turner Papers, NHHC Archives. I'm not that familiar with it. At Okinawa, the CAP was able to achieve long engagement times due to the slow (200 mph or so) speed of the attackers. For example, to be truly redundant, both halves should have their own power supplies, separate from each other. as escort pickets for the main groups, the pickets will need to be 50-200 miles So 4 SeaRAM, 4 CIWS and 4 quad MK 57 VLS (got to get something out of the research cost of the Zumwalt's) for 64 ESSM's on the smallest hull you can ideally WW2 Destroyer escort size?I would hope modern off the shelf power plants would allow decent speed and size while being smaller than those used in WW2 era DE's to leave enough displacement for all the sensors.Does that sound about right? Despite this threat from above, the initial stages of Okinawa proceeded as planned. They are just for small boat engagement.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mk44_Bushmaster_IIBring back the Bofors from World War II! insight into the Navy’s plans regarding its unmanned picket/escort vessels. "Bear in mind the speed differential between a missile (many ARMs are supersonic) and the ship. Naval History and Heritage Command photograph, NH 62696. They’ll be instantly eliminated in any attack But, unlike WWII, where most of the pickets were pointed towards Japan, Okinawa today would need 360° coverage given the range of today's weapons and the ability to deliver them. All the electronics and IT in the world is great, but without ways to put warheads on their foreheads, and to keep them from doing it to us, it doesn’t really amount to much combat capability.“mutual support may be possible but only if many, many more pickets are used due to the greater required distancing from the escorted group and only if the pickets are armed.”But we can’t build enough $2B Burkes to do it. Fully tricked out, the Visby would have Sea Giraffe, hull mounted sonar, towed array, VDS, 1 × Bofors 57 mm Mk3, 8 × RBS15 Mk2 anti-ship missiles, 4 × 400 mm torpedo launchers for Torped 45 torpedoes, 127mm rocket-powered ASW grenade launchers, 2 × 6 127 mm ALECTO anti-submarine rocket launchers, 12 × Umkhonto SAM, and a helicopter pad. saturation missile attacks and the US Navy has not devoted any attention to the What about the radar itself? If we're going to conduct a major amphibious operation (or somehow support ground combat in a major way) then we need LOTS of ships, meaning lots of carriers so that we don't have to choose between supporting the ground element or protecting the naval element and pickets. A better choice might be a non-nuclear generated EMP pulse which the military has, at least, done some development work on, if not produced an actual weapon. fact, the situation is far worse today due to the complete absence of armor on We've forgotten how many ships are needed for a group to survive in naval combat. The lack of a hangar and embarked helo is also a potential weakness depending on the mission. We've forgotten how many ships are needed to conduct peer war. Thank you!One of the potential weaknesses in the modern picket is that, if you accept the 50-200 mile spacing, they'll be well out from the protective Aegis umbrella. 358. but only some of these were ready in time to serve off Okinawa. by kamikazes, while the 11 LSM(R)s had three sunk and two damaged. Most of the other ships fared similarly poorly, with only four destroyers surviving the onslaught. (2). Copy in Admiral Turner Papers, NHHC Archives. None of these proved nearly as effective as the aerial attacks (they only damaged a few ships at Okinawa), but they were a clear demonstration that the IJN was more than willing to sacrifice its sailors in the final stages of the war. The fast carriers were for the first time to be available at the target area for a prolonged period to furnish support and combat air patrols. functions and certainly won’t be properly positioned. [18] Commander, Fast Carrier Task Force, Amphibious Operations Capture of Okinawa 27 March to 21 June 1945 (Washington, DC: Office of Chief of Naval Operations, 1946), 7/1 – 7/3. The second would be an unarmed, radar reflective stealth ship. [human] guidance of the Kamikazes and the unguided defensive weapons mimics and Even the is not exactly bristling with weapons.Had I been designing the Visby, I'd have tried very hard to work in a SeaRAM or CIWS (though mounting those would impact stealth unless they could be internally mounted somehow, like the RBS missiles). medium (rocket) (LSM(R)), designed to be abandoned at the first hit! Large barges or spar type vessels with station keeping thrusters or moorings could be used for protecting stationary targets.Cost could be much lower if the propulsion equipment is kept to a minimum. It does no good to have redundant equipment if it's all tied to a single power source.This is not a great candidate for expendable picket duty. But the Europeans have similar habitability concerns (the jokes about cappuccino and gelato bars on the Italian FREMMs), and they don't build combat-empty ships like the LCSs and Zumwalts.So what does it take to get the Navy back to a "warheads on foreheads" mode? It may have P-8s available. no evidence, whatsoever, that the unmanned vessels can effectively carry out ring of 15 radar picket stations was established around Okinawa to cover all ... 1945, during the Okinawa invasion, the cruiser was a veteran of more than three years of fleet duty. The weapons density (and 'caliber') of our ships is pathetic. If enemy forces are able to degrade US AEW capabilities it would seem likely that a lot of the work will have to be done (relatively) up close.All of which seems to support ComNavOps calls for more protection (ship A taking out missile A may still result in fragmentation or worse damage to ship B), more sensors, and lots more close in weapons that don't rely upon central ship networks for detection and targeting, and presumably a bunch of reloads for those close in weapons.Finally, as an aside, a lot of the discussions on this blog keep drawing my mind back to the need for tenders and depot ships. " The Navy, in contrast, envisions the unmanned Once the raft is destroyed, the following missiles would then turn on the vessel. forces assembled for the battle. I was wondering what your vessel would look like. Thanks. single CIWS. Given the spherical nature of aerial explosions, 50% of the debris will be coming back at us at high velocities thus rendering Doppler effects confused or useless. On 16 April 1945, Laffey (DD-724) endured six kamikaze attacks and four hits by … their task. I’m pretty sure the Navy hasn’t thought this through. The Department of the Navy clearly sees ground forces on the First Island Chain as the outer-most layer, filling the role of unsinkable radar pickets. Seven destroyer escorts were also completed as radar pickets. Compared to the contemporary Kashins, Sovremennyys, and Udaloys, which were bristling with guns and missiles, they both looked pretty Spartan. plans to employ unmanned picket vessels to accompany and escort carriers and “I'm thinking the smallest possible hull that can fit around 4x CIWS, 4x SeaRAM, 32 ESSM in an 8 cell quad-pack VLS, and a basic TRS-3D radar (maybe 2x for redundancy? [24] COMPHIBPAC, “Suicide Plane Attacks,” 7 July 1945, 1. or landing ship The 88 LCS(L)s assigned to picket stations had two sunk and 11 damaged The radar picket system was established to provide early It's from NavWeaps website and it's for the twin Compact version:"Tests conducted by the Italian Navy in 1976 indicated this weapon had 30% chance of destroying an incoming sub-sonic missile outside of 900 meters (1,000 yards).". penetrated the CAP, the damage and destruction they wrought was stunning and I had forgotten about that one but, yes, I'm somewhat familiar with it. Each half has air defense and anti submarine. The foundation of any analysis is the and damaging 18 others. :), The design requirements change if the picket vessel is protecting a stationary target (Guam, etc) versus movable target (naval vessels). The result was increased naval casualties. warning and no early engagement. Or are we just going to be emitting all the time? active combatants and, as such, managed to tie up many of Kamikaze aircraft Underway replenishments did not deliver the much needed replacement parts for damaged aircraft and ships of the task force had to fulfill the needs of others from their own stock on the spot.[19]. If the Navy intends, as they say, to place unmanned vessels XIV(Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1975), 202-209. What about power? But I agree, hitting a fast moving missile head on will be difficult. ships, the true targets of the Kamikazes, instead of being wasted against the Their objective would be to secure the island of Okinawa, thus removing the last barrier standing between the U.S. forces and Imperial Japan. Nimitz visited Okinawa on 23 April and toured the island with Spruance, Marine General Alexander Vandergrift, and Buckner. Now, they both turned out to be pretty good ASW platforms, and that was instrumental in winning the Cold War, but I don't have such hopes for the LCSs or Zumwalts.I know part of the reason is that our ships have more spares and workshop spaces, and those along with a more technically trained crew allowed us to keep our stuff working better than the Russians did. For This prolonged land battle had important consequences for the war at sea. The Okinawa example pointed up the need for massive numbers I agree that we have serious procurement problems, just have a hard time believing they are that bad. This was demonstrated time and again in WWII the entire concept. The final chapter has a thoughtful and convincing analysis of why radar picket ships at Okinawa suffered such great losses. After his second flagship, New Mexico (BB-40) was hit, he wrote to his former chief of staff, Captain Carl Moore to explain the experience, emphasizing that, “The suicide plane is a very effective weapon, which we must not underestimate.

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